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Bug Bounty Tip: Utilizing JSON and Lists for ATO Testing

Bug Bounty Tip: Utilizing JSON and Lists for ATO Testing

The bug bounty tip of this week comes from Mohamed Reda.

When testing a login functionality during a bug bounty program, utilizing JSON and lists can help uncover potential Account Takeover (ATO) vulnerabilities. This technique involves manipulating the request payload to test the system’s response to list-type inputs.


1. Modify Request Body

Change the request body to JSON format and structure it to accept lists for the email and password fields.

    "email": "email",
    "password": "password"

    "email": [
    "password": [

2. Test for ATO Vulnerabilities

a. Single Password Test

  • Utilize a list of emails and try a single password across all emails. Verify if any email-password combination allows successful login.

b. Brute Force Test

  • Use a list of emails and a list of passwords.
  • Employ an Intruder tool to systematically perform a brute force attack.
  • Check for successful logins using different email and password combinations.

Please Note

Always conduct security testing within the scope of the bug bounty program and with explicit authorization. Respect ethical guidelines and adhere to responsible disclosure practices when identifying and reporting vulnerabilities.

This approach helps uncover potential vulnerabilities in the login process, ensuring a thorough security assessment and contributing to a more secure system.

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Get featured on BugBounter with your bug bounty tip. Sign up on BugBounter as a cybersecurity researcher today, and contact our Community Manager Salih with your username on BugBounter via their email, [email protected].

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Bug Bounty Tip: Role-Based Authorization and Unauthorized Access Testing

Bug Bounty Tip: Role-Based Authorization and Unauthorized Access Testing

Bug bounty tip of this week comes from Omer Goktas, one of the top cybersecurity researchers on BugBounter. Dive into his tip about role-based authorization and unauthorized access testing.

In web and API testing, if there are roles with different levels of authorization, log in with an account that has a high level of authorization.

1. Log in using your account with lower authorization in an incognito tab.

2. Take note of what actions you can perform with your account that has high authorization. For this, you can send all requests to the Burp Repeater tab.

3. Then, try sending these requests with your unauthorized account.

4. If you’re lucky, you’ll be able to successfully send the request.


If the session is determined only by the JWT token, testing unauthorized accesses can be done by sending requests with the JWT token of the unauthorized account.


Copy the URL addresses and, in the incognito tab where your unauthorized user account is open, go to these URL addresses to access places the unauthorized user should not have access to.

Thanks to Omer for this week’s tip. If you’d also like to be featured on BugBounter with your bug bounty tip, reach out to the BugBounter Community Manager with your username and bug bounty tip.

Bug Bounty Tip: Leveraging Content Security Policy (CSP)

Bug Bounty Tip: Leveraging Content Security Policy (CSP)

The bug bounty tip of the week comes from Abdelrahman Ali from Egypt. Abdelrahman’s bug bouty tip includes leveraging Content Security Tip (CSP) for maximum impact in bug bounty hunting.

1. Master CSP Basics

Understand that CSP is your ally, designed to thwart attacks. It restricts the execution of scripts, styles, and other resources, making it pivotal in your bug bounty arsenal.

2. Detect Misconfigurations

Search for CSP misconfigurations, which can lead to substantial rewards. Misconfigured policies can allow malicious scripts to run unchecked.

3. Analyze CSP Headers

Probe websites for CSP headers. Look for the “Content-Security-Policy” HTTP response header to unveil potential security gaps.

4. Policy Directives Unveiled

Familiarize yourself with CSP directives; they determine resource origins. Common directives include ‘script-src,’ ‘style-src,’ ‘img-src,’ and more.

5. Script Origins

CSP gives you the power to control script sources. Use ‘script-src’ to allow scripts only from trusted origins like ‘self’ or specific domains.

6. Nonce Usage

CSP provides ‘nonce’ as a safeguard. Include a random nonce in your CSP directive and the script tag; only matching nonces will execute scripts.


<script src="" nonce="random-value"></script>
CSP: script-src 'nonce-random-value';

7. Hash Checks

CSP lets you specify trusted script content by hashing. If the script’s hash doesn’t match, it won’t run. Update the hash when script content changes.


CSP: script-src 'sha256-hash-value';

8. CSRF Token Protection

Understand how CSP’s ‘img-src’ directive can impact CSRF token security. Inadequate control can lead to token disclosure and potential attacks.

9. Mitigate CSRF Risks

As a bug bounty hunter, help websites protect against CSRF token theft by advising them to restrict ‘img-src’ to trusted sources.

10. Stay Current About CSP

Continuously monitor CSP developments. It’s a dynamic field, and evolving CSP techniques can unlock new bug bounty opportunities.

Thank You for Reading This Week’s Bug Bounty Tip

For more information, please visit Abdelrahman’s GitHub page:

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Bug Bounty Tip: File Analysis & Session Manipulation in Mobile App Testing | BugBounter

Bug Bounty Tip: File Analysis & Session Manipulation in Mobile App Testing | BugBounter

Ömer Göktaş, one of the top cybersecurity experts in the BugBounter Community shares a bug bounty tip you can all benefit from while testing mobile apps.

When conducting mobile app testing, after completing the final testing phase, it’s crucial to shift focus to scrutinizing the app’s native files for potential vulnerabilities. Begin by thoroughly analyzing all files, paying special attention to those related to user sessions.

For enhanced testing, consider utilizing the following steps:

Step 1: File Examination

Use a disassembler tool like apktool to dissect the APK file. Look for any sensitive information or configuration files.

Step 2: Email Manipulation

Within session-related files, identify email addresses and modify them. For instance, using Python:

Step 3: ADB Replacement

Before launching the app, overwrite the existing files with modified ones using ADB commands.

Step 4: User Impersonation

With luck, the app might load with a different user’s session, exposing potential authorization issues.

Thank you for Reading

We thank Ömer Göktaş for this week’s bug bounty tip. If you’d like to be featured on Bugbounter social medias with your bug bounty tip, don’t hesitate to reach out to us. Let’s help each other improve!

For more bug bounty tips like this, go to our Community Page.

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Bug Bounty Tips: Unveiling Vulnerabilities in IoT Firmware

Bug Bounty Tips: Unveiling Vulnerabilities in IoT Firmware

This week’s bug bounty tip comes from Eslam Kamal from Cairo, Egypt. Eslam dives into IoT pentesting, focusing on firmware, software, and applications can lead to uncovering crucial vulnerabilities. Here’s a breakdown of effective steps and considerations to successfully map out attack surfaces and identify weaknesses in IoT firmware:

1. Attack Surface Mapping

Begin with comprehensively mapping potential entry points for attackers within the IoT solution. Create an architecture diagram that visually captures the device’s structure from a pentester’s perspective. This forms the foundation for prioritizing tests and understanding the system’s overall architecture.

2. Research and Information Gathering

Thoroughly gather intelligence about the target device. Explore documentation, online resources, prior research, and available CVEs to build a comprehensive understanding of the device’s characteristics, functionalities, and known vulnerabilities.

3. Firmware Analysis

Firmware is a treasure trove of information and vulnerabilities. Obtain the firmware binary through various means: online resources, physical access, or OTA updates. Use tools like “Binwalk” to extract the file system from the binary image. To install “Binwalk” on Kali Linux, use the following command:

sudo apt install binwalk

Once you have the firmware binary, extract it using the following command:

sudo binwalk -Me –dd=".*" {product_firmware.bin} --run-as=root

Gain insights into crucial firmware components such as bootloader, kernel, and file system.

4. Reverse Engineering

Apply traditional pentesting techniques to firmware and software components. Reverse engineer binaries, mobile applications, and cloud components to uncover secrets and vulnerabilities. Pay special attention to communication APIs to understand interactions between different IoT components and communication protocols.

5. Mobile Applications and Web Interfaces

Examine mobile applications and web-based dashboards that control the IoT device. Probe for vulnerabilities that may reveal sensitive information or unauthorized access. Exploit insecure network interfaces or outdated software versions for potential entry points.

6. Vulnerabilities in Embedded Devices

Focus on vulnerabilities unique to embedded devices. Explore avenues like exposed serial ports, insecure authentication mechanisms, firmware extraction through JTAG or Flash chips, external media-based attacks, power analysis, and side channel attacks. These avenues can expose critical security gaps.

Thank you for Reading

Check out Eslam Kamal‘s blog for more articles like this one. Access here.

Interested in getting featured on BugBounter’s social medias with your bug bounty tip? Join the BugBounter Community today, and reach out to us with your nickname and bug bounty tip.

Kevin Mitnick's 7 lessons for ethical hackers of today. Blog post banner art by BugBounter.

7 Ethical Hacking Lessons from Kevin Mitnick

Today, we remember the legendary Kevin Mitnick, the guiding light in ethical hacking, let us embark on a transformative journey of self-improvement and excellence with 10 lesson from one of the brightest stars of the world of ethical hacking.

1. Hacking with Integrity: Upholding Ethical Principles

Kevin says

“Ethics define the true hacker.”

As we explore the art of ethical hacking, let integrity be our compass, always leading us to protect and secure systems while respecting the boundaries of legality and privacy.

2. Decoding the Human Element: Social Engineering Insights

Kevin reminds us

“In responsible disclosure, lies the key to a secure tomorrow.”

By reporting vulnerabilities responsibly, we build bridges of collaboration between ethical hackers and organizations, fostering a united front against cyber threats.

3. The Art of Problem-Solving: An Ethical Hacker’s Ingenuity

Kevin says

“Every problem holds a hidden opportunity.”

Embrace challenges as stepping stones to innovation and creativity. As ethical hackers, we thrive on developing ingenious solutions to safeguard the digital realm.

4. Shadows of Anonymity: Protecting Our Digital Identity

Kevin whispers

“In the shadows, we safeguard our power.”

Discretion and anonymity are our shields. Let us navigate the digital landscape with caution, protecting ourselves while we protect others.

5. Unity in the Ethical Hacker’s Clan

Kevin reminds us

“Strength lies in unity.”

Embrace a collaborative community that shares knowledge, experiences, and insights. Together, we become an unstoppable force in defending cyberspace.

6. Empathizing with the Adversary: An Ethical Hacker’s Mindset

Kevin advices

“Know your enemy to conquer the battlefield.”

Empathize with potential adversaries to predict their moves and counter their attacks effectively.

7. The Power of Continuous Learning: Unleashing the Ethical Hacker’s Potential

Kevin proclaims

“Knowledge is the currency of a true hacker.”

Embrace a relentless pursuit of learning, constantly updating our skills to stay ahead in the ever-changing world of cybersecurity.

Conclusion: Embrace the Legacy, Forge a Safer Future

As we pay homage to Kevin Mitnick’s legacy, let his wisdom ignite the fire within us. Embrace the hacker’s journey with his guiding principles—integrity, collaboration, empathy, and continuous learning. Together, we can unleash the true potential of ethical hacking and forge a safer, more secure future for all.

Rest in peace, Kevin. Thank you for everything you did for the global community of ethical hackers. 🖤